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# Statistics & Maths

### What Is A Forest Plot And How To Read Them?

In this article, I will explain what a forest plot is and describe the different components of a forest plot by using an example...

### How To Perform A Non-Parametric Partial Correlation In SPSS

Partial correlations are great in that you can perform a correlation between two continuous variables whilst controlling for various confounders. However, the partial correlation...

### How To Perform A Mann-Whitney U Test In SPSS

What is a Mann-Whitney U test? A Mann-Whitney U test is a non-parametric alternative to an unpaired (independent) t-test to determine the difference between two...

### The Hardy-Weinberg Equations And How To Use Them

What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also referred to as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, is a set of 5 assumptions which when satisfied can...

### How To Calculate PCR Primer Efficiencies

Why bother with PCR primer efficiencies? Every time you receive a new set of primers, especially when using SYBR Green chemistry during quantitative polymerase chain...

### How To Test Data For Normality In SPSS

The very first thing you should do before performing any statistical test, is to see whether your data is normally distributed. Normality testing in...

### How To Perform A Paired T-Test In SPSS

What is a paired t-test? A paired t-test, also known as a dependent t-test, is a statistical test used to determine if there are any...

### How To Perform The Pfaffl Method For qPCR

What is the Pfaffl method? The Pfaffl method, named after it's curator Michael Pfaffl, is used to calculate relative gene expression data while accounting for...

### How To Dilute New PCR Primers

So you have designed and ordered your primers and now they have finally arrived. But how do you prepare lyophilised (freeze-dried powder form) oligo...

### How To Perform The Delta-Delta Ct Method

What is the delta-delta Ct method? The delta-delta Ct method, also known as the 2-∆∆Ct method, is a simple formula used in order to calculate...