Techniques

How To Analyse qPCR Results With Multiple Reference Genes

A question that I often come across for those who are calculating relative gene expression values in qPCR is, how to go about using...
Agarose gel comparison different concentrations

What Percentage Agarose Is Required For Electrophoresis?

In this article, I will explain how an agarose gel works to separate nucleic acids during electrophoresis. Also, I will discuss how to select...
Random primers, oligo(dT) and gene-specific primers for cDNA synthesis

Random Primers Or Oligo(dT) Primers For cDNA Synthesis?

Having extracted and assessed the total RNA from your samples, you now have the task of creating the first strand complementary DNA (cDNA). Sounds...
Agarose gel

Reasons Why Your PCR Reaction Does Not Work

We have all been there. You have been performing PCRs perfectly for weeks/months on end but now, for some bizarre reason, you see …...
qPCR amplification plot annotated

What Is A Cycle Threshold (Ct) Value In qPCR?

In this article, I will explain what is meant by a Ct value in quantification (real-time) PCR (qPCR). I will also discuss the difference...
Hardy-Weinberg equation featured image

The Hardy-Weinberg Equations And How To Use Them

What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also referred to as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, is a set of 5 assumptions which when satisfied can...
Bisulfite pyrosequencing pyrogram

How Does Bisulfite Pyrosequencing Work?

What is bisulfite pyrosequencing? Bisulfite, also referred to as bisulphite, pyrosequencing is a technique used to quantify DNA methylation levels on DNA at a single-base...

What Is The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?

What is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? PCR is a molecular technique frequently applied to amplify regions of interest in DNA, resulting in millions or...
Pfaffl results graph

How To Perform The Pfaffl Method For qPCR

What is the Pfaffl method? The Pfaffl method, named after it's curator Michael Pfaffl, is used to calculate relative gene expression data while accounting for...

How To Make 0.5M EDTA pH 8.0

About EDTA solution Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution, at 0.5 M pH 8.0, is a commonly used solution utilised as a ligand and chelating agent. EDTA...

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