# Maths

### Cohen’s d Calculator: A Quick And Easy Method

Below is the Cohen's d calculator. Simply enter the groups mean and standard deviation values into the calculator, click the calculate button and Cohen's...

### How To Analyse qPCR Results With Multiple Reference Genes

A question that I often come across for those who are calculating relative gene expression values in qPCR is, how to go about using...

### What Is A Z-Score And How To Calculate Them?

What is a Z-score? A Z-score, also known as a standard score, represents the number of standard deviations (SDs) a data point is away from...

### The Hardy-Weinberg Equations And How To Use Them

What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also referred to as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, is a set of 5 assumptions which when satisfied can...

### How To Use The Standard Error Formula

In this guide I will explain what the standard error formula is and how to use it to work out the standard error through...

### How To Calculate The Coefficient Of Variation (CV)

What is the coefficient of variation? The coefficient of variation (CV) is a measure of precision from repeated measures. Within the lab, it is mainly...

### How To Calculate PCR Primer Efficiencies

Why bother with PCR primer efficiencies? Every time you receive a new set of primers, especially when using SYBR Green chemistry during quantitative polymerase chain...

### The C1V1 = C2V2 Equation Explained

The simple formula of C1V1 = C2V2 is a lifesaver for bioscience researchers in the lab who are wanting to do dilutions. Here I...

### How To Dilute New PCR Primers

In this article, I will explain how to easily prepare PCR stock primers and how to dilute them into a working primer solution. Mastering qPCR A...

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