# Maths

### How To Perform The Delta-Delta Ct Method

What is the delta-delta Ct method? The delta-delta Ct method, also known as the 2-∆∆Ct method, is a simple formula used in order to calculate...

### How To Calculate DNA Copy Number For qPCR

In this article, I will show you how to calculate the DNA copy number for qPCR, by using the known amount and length of...

### What Is And How To Calculate Cohen’s d?

What is Cohen's d? Cohen's d is a type of effect size between two means. An effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude for...

### Cohen’s d Calculator: A Quick And Easy Method

Below is the Cohen's d calculator. Simply enter the groups mean and standard deviation values into the calculator, click the calculate button and Cohen's...

### How To Analyse qPCR Results With Multiple Reference Genes

A question that I often come across for those who are calculating relative gene expression values in qPCR is, how to go about using...

### What Is A Z-Score And How To Calculate Them?

What is a Z-score? A Z-score, also known as a standard score, represents the number of standard deviations (SDs) a data point is away from...

### The Hardy-Weinberg Equations And How To Use Them

What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also referred to as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, is a set of 5 assumptions which when satisfied can...

### How To Use The Standard Error Formula

In this guide I will explain what the standard error formula is and how to use it to work out the standard error through...

### How To Calculate The Coefficient Of Variation (CV)

What is the coefficient of variation? The coefficient of variation (CV) is a measure of precision from repeated measures. Within the lab, it is mainly...

### How To Calculate PCR Primer Efficiencies

Why bother with PCR primer efficiencies? Every time you receive a new set of primers, especially when using SYBR Green chemistry during quantitative polymerase chain...