# How To Calculate Z-scores By Using SPSS

In this guide, I will explain how to calculate Z-scores by using SPSS, in three simple steps. The process is actually ridiculously easy, it’s just not very obvious within the SPSS interface on how to do it.

# What is a Z-score?

A Z-score, also known as a standard score, represents the number of standard deviations (SDs) a data point is away from the average (mean) of the group. Z-scores, therefore, are a useful way of standardising values.

# How to calculate Z-scores in SPSS

To do this, I will use an example, as mentioned previously. Within SPSS the data looks like this. Simply, it is just a list of 10 scores on a memory test.

1. To calculate Z-scores, firstly go to the `Descriptives` by going to `Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Descriptives... `. 2. Next, move the scores that need to be converted into the `Variable(s)` box to the right. Also, click the option to `Save standardized values as variables`. It is this simple tick box which enables the creation of Z-scores!

That’s all that is required!

If you now go to the Data View within SPSS, you should see a new variable has been created, which is named as the same variable as before with a Z prefix added. So, in the example, this is called Zscores. This is the Z-scores of the Scores variable we started with. So, that is how to use SPSS to create Z-scores very quickly.