Statistics & Maths

What Is And How To Calculate Cohen’s d?

What is Cohen's d? Cohen's d is a type of effect size between two means. An effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude for...

Cohen’s d Calculator: A Quick And Easy Method

Below is the Cohen's d calculator. Simply enter the groups mean and standard deviation values into the calculator, click the calculate button and Cohen's...

How To Analyse qPCR Results With Multiple Reference Genes

A question that I often come across for those who are calculating relative gene expression values in qPCR is, how to go about using...
video

How To Calculate Z-scores By Using SPSS

In this guide, I will explain how to calculate Z-scores by using SPSS, in three simple steps. The process is actually ridiculously easy, it's...

What Is A Z-Score And How To Calculate Them?

What is a Z-score? A Z-score, also known as a standard score, represents the number of standard deviations (SDs) a data point is away from...
Example forest plot created using Metafor in R.

13 Best Free Meta-Analysis Software To Use

There is a range of software and programs available to use when performing meta-analyses. Frustratingly, not all of them are free to use and...
video

How To Perform A One-Sample T-Test In SPSS

What is a one-sample t-test test? A one-sample t-test is a statistical procedure used to determine if there is a significant difference between the sample...

Independent (Unpaired) T-Test Assumptions

Before performing an independent (unpaired) t-test, there are five assumptions that need to be satisfied. Failure in meeting all of the assumptions can lead...
Funnel plot annotated

What Is A Funnel Plot And How To Read Them?

In this article, I will explain what a funnel plot is, based on their use in meta-analyses, and discuss what they show. What is a...

What Is A Forest Plot And How To Read Them?

In this article, I will explain what a forest plot is and describe the different components of a forest plot by using an example...

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